ROCK, STONE, AND MINERAL NAMES

Updated
5th April 2010

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ROCK, STONE, AND MINERAL NAMES

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ROCK, STONE, AND MINERAL NAMES

The following is a simple, albeit long, list of rock, mineral, and stone names, and their alternatives. Most of the names listed here are recognised in the mineralogical sense, but a few names that have acquired common usage will inevitably have crept in. Where possible, I have included in brackets my best attempts at providing a chemical name or description for each entry. Many entries in this list are in fact repeats where a particular stone has several names, so this list enables some cross referencing.

For example, the gemstone Aquamarine is listed under:

Some minerals are very simple in their make-up but all too often their simplicity belies a complex variety of appearances. Quartz (Silicon dioxide) and Calcite (Calcium carbonate) are prime exmples and these two minerals alone, along with additives, make up a large proportion of minerals in Earth's crust with perhaps over 200 varieties, many of them listed here.

In some cases the chemical description is simplified. Tiny amounts of other material that may impart colour to another mineral I have omitted for clarity. For example, Amethyst gets its colour from tiny amounts of Iron so strictly speaking it should be listed as 'Iron Silicon dioxide'. It is listed as Silicon dioxide for simplicity.

There are approximately 700 entries in this list which details roughly 250 separate minerals. I once heard that there were something in the order of 3000 separately identified materials if you include native elements as well as all the different rocks and minerals that exist in nature. If one were to include all the synonyms for a given mineral this page represents but a small fraction of what could be listed. So, it is safe to say that this list, thought it may be long, is far from complete. As and when I have time I plan to add to it but in the meantime should you find something to add to the list, or should you spot an error, please feel free to drop me a line to indicate so.
Derek Haselden


A

NAME                       ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME)
Acanthite                  -  (Silver sulphide)
Achroite                   Elbaite, Clear Tourmaline  (Complex borosilicate)
Actinolite                 -  (Calcium (Magnesium/Iron) hydroxysilicate)
Adamite                    -  (Zinc hydroxyarsenate)
Adularia                   Clear Orthoclase  (Potassium aluminium silicate)

Aegerine                   -  (Sodium iron silicate)
Agate                      Banded chalcedony  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Blue Lace           -  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Carnelian           -  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Dendritic           Merlinite, Mocha Stone, Tree Stone  (Silicon dioxide)

Agate, Fire                -  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Fortification       -  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Landscape           -  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Mexican             Vaquilla  (Silicon dioxide)
Agate, Moss                Green Moss Agate  (Silicon dioxide)

Agate, Tree                Green Tree Agate  (Silicon dioxide)
Akermanite                 -  (Calcium magnesium silicate)
Albite                     Plagioclase Feldspar  (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate)
Alexandrite                Chrysoberyl  (Beryllium aluminium silicate)
Almandine                  Red Garnet  (Iron aluminium silicate)

Alunite                    -  (Potassium aluminium hydroxysulphate)
Amazonite                  Amazonstone, Microcline  (Potassium aluminium silicate)
Amazonstone                Amazonite, Microcline  (Potassium aluminium silicate)
Amber                      Succinite, Burmite, Simetite  (Organic plant resin)
Amblygonite                -  ((Lithium/Sodium) aluminium fluorohydroxyphosphate)

Amethyst                   Mauve Quartz  (Silicon dioxide)
Amethyst, Chevron          Dogtooth Amethyst  (Silicon dioxide)
Amethyst, Dogtooth         Chevron Amethyst  (Silicon dioxide)
Amethyst, New Cape         Pale Amethyst  (Silicon dioxide)
Amethyst, Pale             New Cape Amethyst  (Silicon dioxide)

Analcite                   -  (Hydrated sodium aluminosilicate)
Anatase                    -  (Titanium oxide)
Andalusite                 Chiastolite  (Aluminium silicate)
Andesine                   -  ((Sodium/Calcium) aluminosilicate)
Andradite Garnet, Black    Melanite  (Calcium iron silicate)

Andradite Garnet, Green    Green Garnet  (Calcium iron silicate)
Andradite Garnet, Red      Melanite  (Calcium iron silicate)
Andradite Garnet, Yellow   Topazolite  (Calcium iron silicate)
Angel Hair                 Rutile, Sagenite, Venus-Hair stone  (Titanium oxide)
Angelite                   Celestite, Celestine  (Strontium sulphate)

Anglesite                  -  (Lead sulphate)
Anhydrite                  -  (Calcium sulphate)
Ankerite                   -  (Calcium (Iron/Magnesium/Manganese) carbonate)
Annabergite                -  (Hydrated nickel arsenate)
Anorthite                  -  (Calcium aluminium silicate)

Anorthoclase               -  ((Sodium/Potassium) aluminium silicate)
Anthophyllite              -  ((Magnesium/Iron) hydroxysilicate)
Antigorote                 -  ((Magnesium/Iron) hydroxysilicate)
Apatite                    -  (Calcium phosphate)
Apophyllite                -  (Hydrated potassium calcium fluorohydroxysilicate)

Aquamarine                 Blue Beryl  (Beryllium aluminium silicate)
Aragonite                  Flos Feri  (Calcium carbonate)
Arfvedsonite               -  (Sodium (Iron/Magnesium) hydroxysilicate)
Arsenopyrite               -  (Iron arsenic sulphide)
Artinite                   -  (Magnesium hydroxycarbonate)

Asbestos                   -  Crocidolite, Chrysotile, Riebeckite  (Sodium (Iron/Magnesium) iron hydroxysilicate)
Asparagus Stone            Yellow/Green Apatite  (Calcium phosphate)
Astrophyllite              -  ((Potassium/Sodium) (Iron/Manganese) titanium hydroxysilicate)
Atacamite                  -  (Copper hydroxychloride)
Augite                     -  ((Calcium/Sodium) (Magnesium/Iron/Aluminium/Titanium) aluminosilicate)

Aurichalcite               -  ((Zinc/Copper) hydroxycarbonate)
Autinite                   -  (Hydrated calcium uranium oxide phosphate)
Aventurine Feldspar        Sunstone, Feldspar, Oligoclase, Orange Feldspar  (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate)
Aventurine Quartz          Massive (crystals visible to the naked eye) variety of quartz  (Silicon dioxide)
Aventurine, Blue           -  (Silicon dioxide)

Aventurine, Green          -  (Silicon dioxide)
Aventurine, Orange         -  (Silicon dioxide)
Aventurine, Peach          -  (Silicon dioxide)
Aventurine, Red            -  (Silicon dioxide)
Aventurine, White          White Quartz (Silicon dioxide)

Aventurine, Yellow         -  (Silicon dioxide)
Axinite                    -  (Calcium (Iron/Manganese) aluminium hydroxyborosilicate)
Azurite                    Chessylite  (Copper hydroxycarbonate)

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B
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Barite Baryte (Barium sulphate) Baryte Barite (Barium sulphate) Barytocalcite - (Barium calcium carbonate) Bauxite - (Hydrated Iron hydroxide and Aluminium oxide) Bayldonite - ((Lead/Copper) hydroxyarsenate) Benitoite - (Barium titanium silicate) Beryl, Blue Aquamarine (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Clear Goshenite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Green Emerald (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Green/Red Alexandrite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Pink Morganite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Red Bixbite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryl, Yellow Heliodor (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Beryllonite - (Sodium beryllium phosphate) Biotite ((Potassium(Manganese/Iron) (Aluminium/Iron) fluorohydroxysilicate) Black Andradite Garnet Melanite (Calcium iron silicate) Black Diamond Bort (Carbon) Black Obsidian - (Silicon dioxide) Black Quartz Morion (Silicon dioxide) Black Tourmaline Schorl (Complex borosilicate) Blende Sphalerite (Zinc sulphide) Bloodstone Green Jasper, Heliotrope (Silicon dioxide) Blue Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Blue Beryl Aquamarine (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Blue Chalcedony - (Silicon dioxide) Blue Corundum Sapphire (Aluminium oxide) Blue Howlite Turquerenite (Hydrated calcium borosilicate) Blue Lace Agate - (Silicon dioxide) Blue Pectolite Larimar, Larimer (Sodium calcium hydroxysilicate) Blue Spinel Gahnospinel (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Blue Tigers Eye Chatoyant Quartz, Falcon's Eye, Hawks Eye (Silicon dioxide) Blue Tourmaline Indicolite, Indigolite (Complex borosilicate) Blue Vesuvianite Cyprine (Calcium aluminium silicate) Blue Zoisite Tanzanite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Blue/Violet Diopside Violane (Calcium magnesium silicate) Boleite - (Hydrated lead silver copper hydroxychloride) Bonamite Smithsonite (Zinc carbonate) Borax - (Hydrated sodium hydroxyborate) Bornite Peacock Ore (Copper iron sulphide) Bort Black Diamond (Carbon) Boulangerite - (Lead antimony sulphide) Bournonite - (Lead copper antimony sulphide) Bowenite Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Brazilianite - (Aluminium sodium hydroxyphosphate) Brochantite - (Copper hydroxysulphate) Bronzite - (Iron magnesium silicate) Brookite - (Titanium oxide) Brown Chalcedony Sard, Sardstone (Silicon dioxide) Brown Quartz Cairngorm, Smoky Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Brown Tourmaline Buergerite, Dravite (Complex borosilicate) Brucite Nemalite (Magnesium hydroxide) Buergerite Brown Tourmaline, Dravite (Complex borosilicate) Burmite Amber, Succinite, Simetite (Organic plant resin) Bytownite - ((Sodium/Calcium) aluminosilicate) BACK TO TOP
C
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Cairngorm Brown Quartz, Smoky Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Calcite Iceland Spar (Calcium carbonate) Californite Green Vesuvianite (Calcium aluminium silicate) Cancrinite - (Carbonated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Carnallite - (Potassium magnesium hydroxychloride) Carnelian Yellow/Orange/Brown chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Carnelian Agate - (Silicon dioxide) Carnotite - (Hydrated potassium uranium oxide vanadate) Cassiterite Tin Stone (Tin Oxide) Cat's-Eye Chrysoberyl Cymophane (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Cats Eye Chatoyant Quartz, Hawks Eye, Tigers Eye (Silicon dioxide) Celestine Angelite, Celestite (Strontium sulphate) Celestite Angelite, Celestine (Strontium sulphate) Cerussite - (Lead carbonate) Chabazite - (Hydrated calcium aluminosilicate) Chalcanthite - (Hydrated copper sulphate) Chalcedony Microcrystalline quartz (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Blue - (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Brown - Sard, Sardstone (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Dark Green - Green Jasper, Bloodstone, Heliotrope, Plasma (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Light Green Chrysoprase (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Mid Green Prase (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Orange Carnelian, Cornelian (Silicon dioxide) Chalcedony, Red Red Jasper (Silicon dioxide) Chalcopyrite - (Copper iron sulphide) Chalcosine - (Copper iron sulphide) Chamosite - ((Magnesium/Iron) iron aluminohydroxysilicate) Chatoyant Quartz Tigers Eye, Cats Eye, Hawks Eye (Silicon dioxide) Chert Firestone, Flint, Hornstone (Silicon dioxide) Chessylite Azurite (Copper hydroxycarbonate) Chevron Amethyst Dogtooth Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Chiastolite Andalusite, Cross Stone (Aluminium silicate) Chloanthite - (Nickel/Cobalt arsenide) Chlorargyrite - (Silver chloride) Chloritoid - ((Iron/Magnesium/Manganese) hydroxyaluminosilicate) Chromdravite Green Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Chromite - (Iron chromium oxide) Chrondrodite - ((Magnesium/Iron) fluorohydroxysilicate) Chrysoberyl - (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Chrysoberyl, Alexandrite - (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Chrysoberyl, Cat's-Eye Cymophane (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Chrysocolla - (Hydrated (Copper/Aluminium) hydroxysilicate) Chrysoprase Light Green Chalcedony, Prase (Silicon dioxide) Chrysotile Asbestos (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Cinnabar - (Mercury sulphide) Citrine Cairngorm, Yellow Topaz, Yellow Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Clear Beryl Goshenite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Clear Orthoclase Adularia (Potassium aluminium silicate) Clear Quartz Rock Crystal, Silica (Silicon dioxide) Clear Tourmaline Achroite, Elbaite (Complex borosilicate) Clinochlore - ((Iron/Magnesium) aluminium hydroxysilicate) Clinoclase - (Copper hydroxyarsenate) Clinozoisite - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Cobaltite - (Cobalt arsenic sulphide) Colemanite - (Hydrated calcium hydroxyborate) Colourless Corundum Diamondite (Aluminium oxide) Columbite - ((Iron/Manganese) (Niobium/Tantalum) oxide) Copal Immature (young) Amber (Organic plant resin) Copiapite - (Hydrated iron hydroxysulphate) Coral - (Calcium carbonate) Cordierite Iolite, Water Sapphire, Dichroite, Vikings Compass (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Cornelian Orange Chalcedony, Carnelian (Silicon dioxide) Corundum - (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Blue Sapphire (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Colourless Diamondite (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Green Oriental Peridot (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Pink - (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Pink/Orange Padparadscha (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Red Ruby (Aluminium oxide) Corundum, Yellow Oriental Topaz (Aluminium oxide) Covellite - (Copper sulphide) Crocidolite Riebeckite, Asbestos (Sodium (Iron/Magnesium) iron hydroxysilicate) Crocoite - (Lead chromate) Cross-Stone Staurolite (Aluminium iron hydroxysilicate) Cross-Stone Andalusite, Chiastolite (Aluminium silicate) Cryolite - (Sodium aluminium fluoride) Cuprite - (Copper oxide) Cyanite Kyanite, Disthene (Aluminium silicate) Cyanotrichite - (Hydrated copper aluminium hydroxysulphate) Cymophane Cat's-Eye Chrysoberyl (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Cyprine Blue Vesuvianite (Calcium aluminium silicate) BACK TO TOP
D
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Danburite - (Calcium borosilicate) Dark Green Chalcedony Green Jasper, Bloodstone, Heliotrope, Plasma (Silicon dioxide) Datolite - (Calcium hydroxyborosilicate) Dendritic Agate Mocha Stone, Tree Stone, Merlinite (Silicon dioxide) Descloizite - (Lead (Zinc/Copper) hydroxyvanadate) Desert Rose Gypsum, Selenite, Satin Spar (Hydrated calcium sulphate) Diaboleite - (Lead copper hydroxychloride) Diamond, Black Bort (Carbon) Diamondite Colourless Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Diaspore - (Aluminium hydroxide) Dichroite Iolite, Cordierite, Water Sapphire, Vikings Compass (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Diopside, Blue/Violet Violane (Calcium magnesium silicate) Diopside, Green - (Calcium magnesium silicate) Dioptase - (Hydrated copper silicate) Disthene Kyanite, Cyanite (Aluminium silicate) Dogtooth Amethyst Chevron Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Dolomite - (Calcium magnesium carbonate) Dravite Buergerite, Brown Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Dumortierite - (Aluminium iron borosilicate) Dumortierite Quartz Dumortierite (Silicon dixide plus Aluminium iron borosilicate) BACK TO TOP
E
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Eilate Stone Chrysocolla/Malachite/Turquoise Elbaite Clear Tourmaline, Achroite, Multicoloured Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Elaeolite Nepheline ((Sodium/Potassium) aluminosilicate) Emerald Green Beryl (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Enargite - (Copper arsenic sulphide) Enstatite - (Magnesium iron silicate) Epidote - (Calcium (Aluminium/Iron) hydroxysilicate) Epsomite - (Hydrated magnesium sulphate) Erythrite - (Hydrated cobalt arsenate) Euclase - (Beryllium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Eudialyte - (Sodium (Calcium/Cerium) (Iron/Manganese/Yttrium) zirconium chlorohydroxysilicate) BACK TO TOP
F
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Falcon's Eye Hawks Eye, Chatoyant Quartz, Cats Eye, Tigers Eye (Silicon dioxide) Fayalite Olivine, Peridot, Forsterite ((Iron/magnesium) silicate) Feldspar - (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Ferrugineous Quartz Yellow/Brown/Red Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Fibrolite Sillimanite (Aluminium silicate) Fire Agate - (Silicon dioxide) Fire Opal Orange Opal (Hydrated silica gel) Firestone Chert, Flint (Silicon dioxide) Flint Firestone, Chert (Silicon dioxide) Flos Feri Aragonite (Calcium carbonate) Fluorite Fluorspar (Calcium fluoride) Fluorspar Fluorite (Calcium fluoride) Fool's Gold Pyrite, Iron Pyrite (Iron sulphide) Forsterite Olivine, Fayalite ((Iron/magnesium) silicate) Fortification Agate - (Silicon dioxide) Fossilised Wood Petrified Wood, Silicified Wood, Hornstone (Silicon dioxide) Franklinite - (Zinc/Manganese/Iron Iron/Manganese oxide) BACK TO TOP
G
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Gadolinite - (Yttrium iron beryllium silicate) Gahnospinel Blue Spinel (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Galena - (Lead sulphide) Galuberite - (Sodium calcium sulphate) Garnet, Green Andradite Garnet (Calcium iron silicate) Garnet, Green Green Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Garnet, Green Uvarovite (Calcium chromium silicate) Garnet, Orange Spessartine Garnet (Manganese aluminium silicate) Garnet, Pink Pink Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Garnet, Red Almandine Garnet (Iron aluminium silicate) Garnet, Red Pyrope (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Garnierite - ((Nickel/Magnesium) hydroxysilicate) Gehlenite - (Calcium aluminosilicate) Gibbsite - (Aluminium hydroxide) Glaucodot - (Cobalt/Iron arsenic sulphide) Glauconite - ((Potassium/Sodium) (Iron/Aluminium/Magnesium) aluminohydroxysilicate) Glaucophane - (Sodium (Magnesium/Iron) aluminohydroxysilicate) Goethite - (Iron hydroxide) Gold Tigers Eye Chatoyant Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Goshenite Clear Beryl (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Green Andradite Garnet Green Garnet (Calcium iron silicate) Green Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Green Beryl Emerald (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Green Corundum Oriental Peridot (Aluminium oxide) Green Diopside - (Calcium magnesium silicate) Green Garnet Andradite Garnet (Calcium iron silicate) Green Garnet Green Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Green Garnet Uvarovite (Calcium chromium silicate) Green Grossular Green Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Green Jasper Bloodstone, Heliotrope, Plasma (Silicon dioxide) Green Microcline Amazonite, Amazonstone (Potassium aluminium silicate) Green Spodumene Hiddenite (Lithium aluminium silicate) Green Tourmaline Chromdravite (Complex borosilicate) Green Vesuvianite Californite (Calcium aluminium silicate) Green Zoisite - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Green/Red Beryl Alexandrite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Green/Yellow Tourmaline Uvite (Complex borosilicate) Greenockite - (Cadmium sulphide) Grossular Garnet Hessonite (Calcium aluminium silicate) Grossular, Green Green Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Grossular, Pink Pink Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Grunerite - ((Iron/Magnesium) hydroxysilicate) Gypsum Selenite, Satin Spar, Desert Rose (Hydrated calcium sulphate) Gyrolite - (Hydrated sodium calcium aluminohydroxysilicate) BACK TO TOP
H
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Halite Rock Salt, Salt (Sodium chloride) Halloysite Kaolinite, Nacrite (Aluminium hydroxysilicate) Hambergite - (Beryllium hydroxyborate) Harmotome - (Hydrated (Barium/Potassium) aluminosilicate) Hauerite - (Manganese disulphide) Hauyne - (Sodium/Calcium aluminosilica sulphate) Hawks Eye Chatoyant Quartz, Cats Eye, Falcon's Eye, Tigers Eye (Silicon dioxide) Hedenbergite - (Calcium iron silicate) Heliodor Yellow Beryl (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Hematite Kidney ore (Iron oxide) Hematite, Specular - (Iron oxide) Hemimorphite - (Hydrated zinc hydroxysilicate) Herderite - (Calcium beryllium fluorohydroxyphosphate) Hessonite Orange/Brown Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Heulandite - (Hydrated (Sodium/Calcium) (Aluminium/Silicon) aluminosilicate) Hiddenite Green Spodumene (Lithium aluminium silicate) Hornblende - (Calcium (Magnesium/Iron) aluminium fluorohydroxysilicate) Hornstone Fossilised Wood, Petrified Wood, Silicified Wood (Silicon dioxide) Housmannite - (Manganese oxide) Howlite, Blue Turquerenite (Hydrated calcium borosilicate) Howlite, White - (Hydrated calcium borosilicate) Humite - ((Magnesium/Iron) fluorohydroxysilicate) Hydrozincite - (Zinc hydroxycarbonate) Hypersthene - ((Iron/Magnesium) silicate) BACK TO TOP
I
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Iceland Spar Calcite (Calcium carbonate) Idocrase Green Vesuvianite (Calcium aluminium silicate) Ilmenite - (Iron titanium oxide) Ilvaite - (Calcium iron hydroxysilicate) Inca Rose Rhodochrosite (Manganese carbonate) Indicolite Indigolite, Blue Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Indigolite Blue Tourmaline, Indicolite (Complex borosilicate) Iolite Cordierite, Water Sapphire, Dichroite, Vikings Compass (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Iron Pyrite Pyrite, Fool's Gold (Iron sulphide) Iron Rose Hematite (Iron oxide) Ivory - (Calcium hydroxyphosphate) BACK TO TOP
J
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Jade Jadeite (Sodium aluminium silicate) Jade, Bowenite Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Jade, Nephrite Nephrite (Calcium magnesium iron silicate) Jade, Serpentine Serpentine Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Jade, Williamsite Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Jadeite Jade (Sodium (Aluminium/Iron) silicate) Jamesonite - (Lead iron antimony sulphide) Jarlite - (Sodium strontium aluminium hydroxyfluoride) Jarosite - (Potassium iron hydroxysulphate) Jasper Opaque Chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Jasper, Green Bloodstone, Heliotrope, Plasma (Silicon dioxide) Jasper, Orbicular Orbicular Rhyolite, Ocean Jasper Jasper, Picture Picture stone, Kalahari picture stone Jasper, Red - (Silicon dioxide) Jasper, Yellow - (Silicon dioxide) Jet Lignite (Carbon) BACK TO TOP
K
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Kaolinite Halloysite, Nacrite (Aluminium hydroxysilicate) Kernite - (Hydrated sodium hydroxyborate) Kidney ore Hematite (Iron oxide) Kornerupine - (Magnesium aluminium borosilicate) Kunzite Pink Spodumene (Lithium aluminium silicate) Kyanite Cyanite, Disthene (Aluminium silicate) BACK TO TOP
L
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Labradorite Plagioclase Feldspar ((Sodium/Calcium) aluminosilicate) Landscape Agate - (Silicon dioxide) Lapis Lapis Lazuli (rock containing Sodalite, Lazurite, Hauyne, Calcite, Pyrite) Lapis Lazuli Lapis (rock containing Sodalite, Lazurite, Hauyne, Calcite, Pyrite) Larimar Blue Pectolite, Larimer (Sodium calcium hydroxysilicate) Larimer Blue Pectolite, Larimar (Sodium calcium hydroxysilicate) Laumontite - (Hydrated calcium aluminosilicate) Lazulite - ((Magnesium/Iron) aluminium hydroxyphosphate) Lazurite - ((Sodium/Calcium) chlorosulphate hydroxyaluminosilicate) Leadhillite - (Lead sulphate hydroxycarbonate) Lepidocrocite - (Iron hydroxide) Lepidolite - ((Potassium (Lithium/Aluminium) fluorohydroxysilicate) Leucite - (Potassium aluminosilicate) Light Green Chalcedony Chrysoprase (Silicon dioxide) Lignite Jet (Carbon) Limonite - (Iron hydroxide) Linarite - (Lead copper hydroxysulphate) BACK TO TOP
M
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Magnesite - (Magnesium carbonate) Magnetite - (Iron oxide) Mahogany Obsidian Black and Tan (Silicon dioxide) Malachite - (Copper hydroxycarbonate) Manganite - (Manganese hydroxide) Marcasite - (Iron sulphide) Marialite Scapolite, Meionite (Complex silicate) Mauve Quartz Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Meerschaum - (Hydrated magnesium silicate) Meershaum Sepiolite (Hydrated Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Meionite Scapolite, Marialite (Complex silicate) Melanite Red or Black Andradite Garnet (Calcium iron silicate) Merlinite Agate, Dendritic, Mocha Stone, Tree Stone (Silicon dioxide) Mesolite - (Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Mexican Agate Vaquilla (Silicon dioxide) Microcline, Green Amazonite, Amazonstone (Potassium aluminium silicate) Microcrystalline Quartz Chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Microlote - (Hydroxyfluoridated (Sodium/Calcium) tantalum oxide) Mid Green Chalcedony Prase (Silicon dioxide) Milky Quartz Snow Quartz, White Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Millerite - (Nickel sulphide) Mimetite - (Lead chlorine arsenate) Mocha Stone Agate, Dendritic, Merlinite, Tree Stone (Silicon dioxide) Moldavite Tektite (Silicon dioxide) Molybdenite - (Molybdenum disulphide) Monazite - ((Cerium/Lanthanum/Niodium/Thorium) phosphate) Mookaite Australian Jasper, Blood and Custard (Silicon dioxide) Moonstone Opalescent Orthoclase (Potassium aluminium silicate) Morganite Pink Beryl (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Morion Black Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Moss Agate Green Moss Agate (Silicon dioxide) Multicoloured Tourmaline Elbaite (Complex borosilicate) Muscovite - (Potassium aluminium fluorohydroxysilicate) BACK TO TOP
N
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Nacrite Kaolinite, Halloysite (Aluminium hydroxysilicate) Natrolite - (Hydrated sodium aluminosilicate) Nemalite Brucite (Magnesium hydroxide) Nepheline Elaeolite ((Sodium/Potassium) aluminosilicate) Nephrite Nephrite Jade (Calcium magnesium iron silicate) Nephrite Jade Nephrite (Calcium magnesium iron silicate) Neptunite - (Potassium sodium lithium (Iron/Manganese) titanium silicate) New Cape Amethyst Pale Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Nickeline - (Nickel arsenide) Nitratine - (Sodium nitrate) Nosean - (Sulphated sodium aluminosilicate) BACK TO TOP
O
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Obsidian - (Silicon dioxide) Obsidian, Black - (Silicon dioxide) Obsidian, Mahogany Black and Tan (Silicon dioxide) Obsidian, Snowflake - (Silicon dioxide) Oligoclase Sunstone, Orange Feldspar, Aventurine Feldspar ((Sodium/Calcium) aluminosilicate) Olivine Peridot, Forsterite, Fayalite ((Iron/magnesium) silicate) Olivinite - (Copper hydroxyarsenate) Onyx Parallel banded chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Opal - (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Opal, Orange Fire Opal (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Opal, Precious - (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Opal, Wood Opalised Wood (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Opalescent, Orthoclase Moonstone (Potassium aluminium silicate) Opalised Wood Wood Opal (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Orange Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Orange Chalcedony Carnelian, Cornelian (Silicon dioxide) Orange Feldspar Sunstone, Feldspar, Oligoclase, Aventurine Feldspar (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Orange Garnet Spessartine Garnet (Manganese aluminium silicate) Orange Opal Fire Opal (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Orbicular Jasper Orbicular Rhyolite, Ocean Jasper Oriental Peridot Green Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Oriental Topaz Yellow Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Orpiment - (Arsenic Sulphide) Orthoclase, Clear Adularia (Potassium aluminium silicate) Orthoclase, Opalescent Moonstone (Potassium aluminium silicate) Orthoclase, Yellow - (Potassium aluminium silicate) BACK TO TOP
P
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Padparadscha Pink/Orange Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Pale Amethyst New Cape Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Peach Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Peacock Ore Bornite (Copper iron sulphide) Pearl - (Calcium carbonate) Pectolite - (Sodium calcium hydroxysilicate) Pectolite, Blue Larimar, Larimer (Sodium calcium hydroxysilicate) Pentlandite - (Iron/Nickel sulphide) Peridot Gem-quality Olivine (Magnesium iron silicate) Perovskite - (Calcium titanium oxide) Petalite - (Lithium aluminium silicate) Petrified Wood Fossilised Wood, Silicified Wood, Hornstone (Silicon dioxide) Phenakite - (Beryllium silicate) Phillipsite - (Hydrated (Potassium/Sodium/Calcium) aluminosilicate) Phlogopite - (Potassium magnesium aluminium fluorohydroxysilicate) Phosphophyllite - (Hydrated zinc phosphate) Pictotite Spinel, Pleonaste (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Picture Jasper Picture stone, Kalahari picture stone Pink Beryl Morganite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Pink Corundum - (Aluminium oxide) Pink Garnet Pink Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Pink Grossular Pink Grossular Garnet (Calcium aluminium silicate) Pink Quartz Rose Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Pink Spodumene Kunzite (Lithium aluminium silicate) Pink/Orange Corundum Padparadscha (Aluminium oxide) Pink/Red Tourmaline Rubellite (Complex borosilicate) Pink/Red Zoisite Thulite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Plagioclase Feldspar - (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Pleonaste Spinel, Pictotite (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Polybasite - (Silver antimony sulphide) Polyhalite - (Hydrated potassium magnesium calcium sulphate) Prase Chrysoprase, Mid Green Chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Precious Opal - (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Prehnite - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Proustite - (Silver arsenic sulphide) Pyrargyrite - (Silver antimony sulphide) Pyrite Fool's Gold, Iron Pyrite (Iron sulphide) Pyrochlore - (Hydroxyfluoridated (Sodium/Calcium/Uranium) (Niobium/Tantalum/Titanium) oxide) Pyrolusite - (Manganese oxide) Pyromorphite - (Lead chlorine phosphate) Pyrope Garnet (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Pyrophyllite - (Aluminium hydroxysilicate) Pyrrhotite - (Iron sulphide) BACK TO TOP
Q
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Quartz Silica (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Amethyst Mauve quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Aventurine Massive Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Brown Cairngorm, Smoky Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Chatoyant Tigers Eye (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Citrine Cairngorm, Yellow Topaz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Clear Rock Crystal, Silica (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Dumortierite Dumortierite (Silicon dixide plus Aluminium iron borosilicate) Quartz, Ferrugineous Yellow/Brown/Red quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Mauve Amethyst (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Microcrystalline Chalcedony (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Milky Snow Quartz, White Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Morion Black Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Pink Rose Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Rose Pink Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Rutillated Sagenite, Angel Hair (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Smoky Brown Quartz, Cairngorm (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Snow Milky Quartz, Snow Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Tourmalinated - (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, White Milky Quartz, Snow Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Quartz, Yellow Citrine (Silicon dioxide) BACK TO TOP
R
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Realgar - (Arsenic sulphide) Red Andradite Garnet Melanite (Calcium iron silicate) Red Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Red Beryl Bixbite (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Red Chalcedony Red Jasper (Silicon dioxide) Red Corundum Ruby (Aluminium oxide) Red Garnet Almandine Garnet (Iron aluminium silicate) Red Garnet Pyrope (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Red Jasper - (Silicon dioxide) Red Spinel Ruby (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Red Tigers Eye Chatoyant Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Red/Violet/Blue Tourmaline Siberite (Complex borosilicate) Reindeer Stone Tugtupite (Sodium aluminium beryllium silicate) Rhodochrosite Inca Rose (Manganese carbonate) Rhodolite - ((Manganese/Iron/Magnesium/Calcium) silicate) Rhodonite - (Manganese silicate) Richterite - (Sodium calcium (Magnesium/Iron) hydroxysilicate) Riebeckite Asbestos, Crocidolite (Sodium (Iron/Magnesium) iron hydroxysilicate) Rock Crystal Clear Quartz, Silica (Silicon dioxide) Rock Salt Halite, Salt (Sodium chloride) Romanechite - ((Barium hydroxide)) manganese oxide) Rose Quartz Pink Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Rubellite Pink/Red Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Rubicelle Yellow/Red Spinel (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Ruby Red Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Ruby Red Spinel (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Rutile Angel Hair, Sagenite (Titanium oxide) Rutillated Quartz Sagenite, Angel Hair (Silicon dioxide) BACK TO TOP
S
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Sagenite Rutile, Angel Hair (Titanium oxide) Salt Halite, Rock Salt (Sodium chloride) Samarskite - ((Yttrium/Cerium/Uranium/Iron) (Niobium/Tantalum/Titanium) oxide) Sanidine - (Potassium aluminium silicate) Sapphire Blue Corundum (Aluminium oxide) Sard Sardstone (Silicon dioxide) Sardonyx White and Red/Brown banded Sard (Silicon dioxide) Satin Spar Gypsum, Selenite, Desert Rose (Hydrated calcium sulphate) Saualpite Zoisite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Scapolite Meionite, Marialite (Complex silicate) Scheelite - (Calcium tungstate) Schorl Black Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Scolecite - (Hydrated calcium aluminosilicate) Scorodite - (Hydrated iron arsenate) Selenite Gypsum, Satin Spar, Desert Rose (Hydrated calcium sulphate) Sepiolite Meershaum (Hydrated Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Serpentine Jade Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Shell - (Calcium carbonate) Siberite Red/Violet Blue Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Siderite - (Iron carbonate) Silica Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Silicified Wood Hornstone, Fossilised Wood, Petrified Wood (Silicon dioxide) Sillimanite Fibrolite (Aluminium silicate) Simetite Amber, Succinite, Burmite (Organic plant resin) Sinhalite - (Magnesium aluminium iron borate) Skutterudite - (Cobalt arsenide) Smaltite - (Cobalt/Nickel arsenide) Smithsonite Bonamite (Zinc carbonate) Smoky Quartz Brown Quartz, Cairngorm (Silicon dioxide) Snow Quartz Milky Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Snowflake Obsidian - (Silicon dioxide) Sodalite - (Sodium aluminium silicate) Spectrolite Plagioclase Feldspar (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Specular Hematite Hematite (Iron oxide) Spessartine Orange Garnet (Manganese aluminium silicate) Sphalerite Blende (Zinc sulphide) Sphene Titanite (Calcium titanium silicate) Spinel Pictotite, Pleonaste (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Spinel, Blue Gahnospinel (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Spinel, Red Ruby (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Spinel, Yellow/Red Rubicelle (Magnesium aluminium oxide) Spodumene, Green Hiddenite (Lithium aluminium silicate) Spodumene, Pink Kunzite (Lithium aluminium silicate) Staurolite Cross-Stone ((Iron/Magnesium/Zinc) hydroxyaluminosilicate) Stephanite - (Silver antimony sulphide) Stibconite - (Antimony hydroxide) Stibnite - (Antimony sulphide) Stilbite - (Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Strontianite - (Strontium carbonate) Succinite Amber, Burmite, Simetite (Organic plant resin) Sunstone Oligoclase, Orange Feldspar, Aventurine Feldspar (Sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Sylvanite - (Gold silver telluride) Sylvite - (Potassium chloride) BACK TO TOP
T
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Taafeite - (Beryllium magnesium aluminium oxide) Talc - (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Tanzanite Blue Zoisite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Tektite Moldavite (Silicon dioxide) Tennantite - (Copper/Iron arsenic sulphide) Tetrahedrite - (Copper antimony sulphide) Thenardite - (Sodium sulphate) Thomsonite - (Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) Thulite Pink/Red Zoisite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Tigers Eye, Blue Chatoyant Quartz, Hawks Eye, Falcon's Eye (Silicon dioxide) Tigers Eye, Gold Chatoyant Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Tigers Eye, Red Chatoyant Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Tin Stone Cassiterite (Tin Oxide) Titanite Sphene (Calcium titanium silicate) Topaz - (Aluminium fluorohydroxysilicate) Topazolite Yellow Andradite Garnet (Calcium iron silicate) Torbernite - (Hydrated copper uranium oxide phosphate) Tourmalinated Quartz - (Silicon dioxide) Tourmaline, Black Schorl (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Blue Indicolite, Indigolite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Brown Buergerite, Dravite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Clear Achroite, Elbaite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Green Chromdravite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Green/Yellow Uvite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Multicoloured Elbaite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Pink/Red Rubellite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Red/Violet Blue Siberite (Complex borosilicate) Tourmaline, Watermelon Pink/Green Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Tree Agate Green Tree Agate (Silicon dioxide) Tree Stone Agate, Dendritic, Merlinite, Mocha Stone (Silicon dioxide) Tremolite - (Calcium (Magnesium/Iron) hydroxysilicate) Trona - (Hydrated Sodium hydroxycarbonate) Tugtupite - Reindeer Stone (Sodium aluminium beryllium silicate) Tungstite - (Hydrated tungsten oxide) Turquerenite Blue Howlite (Hydrated calcium borosilicate) Turquoise - (Hydrated copper aluminium hydroxyphosphate) Tyuyamunite - (Hydrated calcium uranium oxide vanadate) BACK TO TOP
U
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Ulexite - (Hydrated calcium sodium hydroxyborate) Uraninite - (Uranium oxide) Uvarovite Green Garnet (Calcium chromium silicate) Uvite Green/Yellow Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) BACK TO TOP
V
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Vanadinite - (Lead chlorine vanadate) Vaquilla Mexican Agate (Silicon dioxide) Variscite - (Hydrated aluminium phosphate) Venus-Hair stone Angel Hair, Rutile, Sagenite (Titanium oxide) Vermiculite - (Hydrated (Magnesium/Iron/Aluminium) hydroxysilicate) Vesuvianite Idocrase (Calcium aluminium silicate) Vesuvianite, Blue Cyprine (Calcium aluminium silicate) Vesuvianite, Green Californite (Calcium aluminium silicate) Vikings Compass Iolite, Cordierite, Water Sapphire, Dichroite (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Violane Blue/Violet Diopside (Calcium magnesium silicate) Vivianite - (Hydrated iron phosphate) Volborthite - (Hydrated copper hydroxyvanadate) BACK TO TOP
W
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Wad - (Mixture of metal oxides and hydroxides) Water Sapphire Iolite, Cordierite, Dichroite, Vikings Compass (Magnesium aluminium silicate) Watermelon Tourmaline Pink/Green Tourmaline (Complex borosilicate) Wavellite - (Hydrated aluminium hydroxyfluorophosphate) White Aventurine White Quartz (Silicon dioxide) White Howlite - (Hydrated calcium borosilicate) White Quartz Milky Quartz, Snow Quartz (Silicon dioxide) Willemite - (Zinc silicate) Williamsite Jade (Magnesium hydroxysilicate) Witherite - (Barium carbonate) Wolframite - ((Iron/Manganese) tungstate) Wollastonite - (Calcium silicate) Wood Opal Opalised Wood (Hydrated silicon dioxide) Wulfenite - (Lead molybdate) BACK TO TOP
X
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Xenotime - (Yttrium phosphate) BACK TO TOP
Y
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Yellow Andradite Garnet Topazolite (Calcium iron silicate) Yellow Aventurine - (Silicon dioxide) Yellow Beryl Heliodor (Beryllium aluminium silicate) Yellow Corundum Oriental Topaz (Aluminium oxide) Yellow Jasper - (Silicon dioxide) Yellow Orthoclase - (Potassium aluminium silicate) Yellow Quartz Citrine (Silicon dioxide) Yellow Zoisite - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Yellow/Red Spinel Rubicelle (Magnesium aluminium oxide) BACK TO TOP
Z
NAME ALSO KNOWN AS (CHEMICAL NAME) Zincite - (Zinc oxide) Zircon Zirconia (Zirconium silicate) Zirconia Zircon (Zirconium silicate) Zoisite Saualpite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Zoisite, Blue Tanzanite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Zoisite, Green - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Zoisite, Pink/Red Thulite (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate) Zoisite, Yellow - (Calcium aluminium hydroxysilicate)
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